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Acting on information provided by his cavalry commander, Wade Hampton, Johnston directed his Army of the South to concentrate at Bentonville and attack the Union Left Wing. On March 19, the first day of the Battle of Bentonville, the Confederates routed the lead Federal division, but the rest of the Left Wing dug in and, after a fierce struggle, the fighting ended in a draw. Though outnumbered three-to-one, Johnston refused to withdraw and thus demoralize his troops. Only a desperate counterattack saved the Army of the South, which retreated toward Smithfield later that night. Content to let Johnston escape to Smithfield, Sherman reached Goldsboro on March 23 and formed a junction with Schofield.

The resulting surrender was the largest of the war, embracing almost 90, Confederate troops in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida.


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Unlike their earlier marches, however, foraging was prohibited and the men carried only five rounds in their cartridge boxes instead of the usual forty. As the Federals toiled northward, the daily march increased until it reached almost thirty miles per day. Because of the springtime heat, many men straggled, some dropped from heat exhaustion, and a few unfortunates died.

Villiage of Bentonville at the time of the battle - March - Harper's Weekly.

"The Confederate Surrender at Greensboro, the Final Days of the Army of" by Wesley Moody

He graduated in , finishing 13th out of 46 in his class. Johnston was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 4th U. Artillery, and spent his early military career on garrison duty before serving in a non-combat role in the Black Hawk War Disillusioned with peacetime military service, Johnston elected to resign his commission in to pursue a career in civil engineering. He found work as a civilian contract worker aboard a U. Navy vessel in Florida, and was wounded in the head by Seminoles while leading a survey party in Johnston re-enlisted in the Army a few months later and served as a captain of topographical engineers for the next several years.

During this time he met Lydia McLane, the daughter of a Delaware politician, and the two were married in Johnston next served in the Mexican-American War , during which he was wounded several times—first at the Battle of Cerro Gordo and later while leading a charge at the Battle of Chapultepec. He left the war with a much-vaunted combat record and secured a promotion to lieutenant colonel.

Johnston went on to serve as a topographical engineer in Texas and as a cavalry officer in the Midwest.

The Confederate Surrender at Greensboro: The Final Days of the Army of Tennessee, April 1865

In he earned a promotion to brigadier general and was named quartermaster general of the U. Although he opposed secession, Johnston resigned his commission in April after his home state of Virginia joined the Confederacy. He was appointed a brigadier general in the Confederate Army and took command of forces garrisoned at Harpers Ferry. Johnston would achieve the first major victory of the war in July , when he reinforced General P.

Johnston was equally distressed to learn that his promotion to full general still placed him below Samuel Cooper, Robert E.

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Lee and Albert Sidney Johnston in rank. Johnston had been the most senior U. Army officer to join the Confederacy, and he viewed his new position as a personal insult from Davis. Despite his tumultuous relationship with the Confederate high command, Johnston was placed in charge of the Confederate Army of the Potomac later called the Army of Northern Virginia in early His first major service in this capacity came during the Peninsula Campaign in the spring of , when Union general George B.

To the Bitter End

McClellan attempted to land his army on the Virginia coast and move on Richmond. After making a defensive stand at the Battle of Williamsburg, Johnston continued to retreat, eventually positioning his army just outside of Richmond.

The offensive succeeded in blocking the Union advance, but Johnston was severely wounded during the fighting on June 1 and replaced by Robert E. While Johnston began what would become a six-month convalescence, Lee launched a series of brazen attacks during the Seven Days Battles and successfully drove McClellan from Virginia.

In May he was ordered to take charge of operations in Mississippi , which was threatened by forces under the command of Union General Ulysses S.

Pemberton, who was besieged at the vital Mississippi River hub at Vicksburg. Recognizing that he was at a severe numerical disadvantage, Johnston ordered Pemberton to cede the city to Union control. Beauregard met to discuss the Confederate military situation as a result of General Robert E. Sherman requesting a cease-fire to allow civil authorities to negotiate a peace.

The Confederate Surrender at Greensboro: The Final Days of the Army of Tennessee, April 1865

As a result of this initiative, on April 26, , Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee, which led to the end of the war. Michael Briggs, Commander. The marker sits at the intersection of S. Davie Street and E. McGee St. Next to it is a memorial marker dedicated to Confederate Soldiers Monument many of whom served in the Army of Northern Virginia rather than the Army of Tennessee.