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First, domain I is AT rich as opposed to AC rich, and second, the control region is approximately bp longer than that of other birds. Both these deviations from typical avian control region sequence are explainable on the basis of repeat motifs in domain I of the hornbill control region. The repeat motifs probably originated from a duplication of CSB-1 as has been determined in chicken, quail, and snowgoose. Furthermore, the hornbill repeat motifs probably arose before the divergence of hornbills from each other but after the divergence of hornbills from other avian taxa.

The mitochondrial control region of hornbills is suitable for both phylogenetic and population studies, with domains I and II probably more suited to population and phylogenetic analyses, respectively. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie. Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures.

Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena.

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In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life.

However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie ' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students.

The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float continent formation , the syrup begins to convect mantle convection , and convection slows down after the heat is removed secular cooling. Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess! Environmental stability and the evolution of cooperative breeding in hornbills.

Reproductive cooperation in social animals has been the focus of intensive research, yet the role of environmental factors in promoting such cooperation remains uncertain. Here, we use a phylogenetic framework to assess the effect of climate on the evolution of cooperation in hornbills Bucerotidae , an avian family characterized by frugivory and carnivory.

We show that, in contrast to the global pattern, cooperative reproduction is positively associated with both inter- and intra-annual climatic stability. This reversed relationship implies that hornbills are relatively insensitive to climatic fluctuations, perhaps because of their dietary niche or increased body mass, both of which may remove the need for bet-hedging. We conclude that the relationship between climatic variability and cooperative breeding is inconsistent across taxa, and potentially mediated by life-history variation. These findings help to explain the mixed results of previous studies and highlight the likely shortcomings of global datasets inherently biased towards particular categories.

Seminomas occur infrequently in birds. Two cases of bilateral malignant seminomas in unrelated trumpeter hornbills Bycanistes buccinator are described. Case 1 was a year-old trumpeter hornbill submitted for necropsy because of sudden death at a zoo in California. Postmortem examination revealed multiple masses within the body cavity, 2 of which replaced both testes. Case 2 was a year-old trumpeter hornbill at a zoo in North Carolina that underwent exploratory surgery for a suspected gastrointestinal obstruction.

Both testes were diffusely enlarged, compressing and replacing the adjacent kidneys. In both birds, the masses were composed of discrete, round to polyhedral cells, typical of seminomas.

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Examination of the ancestry of the hornbills showed they were unrelated to each other, suggesting a potential predisposition for these birds to develop seminomas. The southern ground hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri has been classified as globally vulnerable and, in South Africa, regionally endangered, with a negative population trend. Factors contributing to the population decline in South Africa are poisoning, electrocution, and illegal capture for trade, coupled with slow reproductive rates and extensive habitat requirements.

Lead toxicosis is a previously undescribed threat for the population. An adult southern ground hornbill presented with acute lead toxicosis due to lead particles in the gizzard, which required intensive treatment. Two other hornbills were likely exposed.

The source of the lead in these cases was likely a carcass of a porcupine that was killed with lead shot. This report highlights the importance of the use of lead-free ammunition within the habitat of the southern ground hornbill in South Africa. Chantarat, Sommarat; Barrett, Christopher B.

We illustrate this potential using the case of hornbill conservation in the Budo-Sungai Padi rainforests of southern Thailand, using y hornbill reproduction data and 5-y household expenditures data reflecting local economic w Tratamiento Actual del Pie Zambo. Su tratamiento ha variado con el tiempo. Pie plano-valgo adquirido. El pie del adulto mayor. PIE analysis for minor actinide.

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Minor actinide MA is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted.

Use of deferiprone for the treatment of hepatic iron storage disease in three hornbills.

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Because hepatic iron storage disease was suspected, liver biopsy was performed and formalin-fixed liver samples were submitted for histologic examination and quantitative image analysis QIA. Additional frozen liver samples were submitted for chemical analysis. Birds also underwent magnetic resonance imaging MRI under general anesthesia for noninvasive measurement of liver iron content.

Serum biochemical analysis and analysis of feed were also performed. Results of diagnostic testing indicated that all 3 hornbills were affected with hepatic iron storage disease. During the treatment period, liver biopsy samples were obtained at regular intervals for QIA and chemical analysis of the liver iron content and follow-up MRI was performed. In all 3 hornbills , a rapid and large decrease in liver iron content was observed. All 3 methods for quantifying the liver iron content were able to verify the decrease in liver iron content. Orally administered deferiprone was found to effectively reduce the liver iron content in these 3 hornbills with iron storage disease.

All 3 methods used to monitor the liver iron content QIA, chemical analysis of liver biopsy samples, and MRI had similar results, indicating that all of these methods should be considered for the diagnosis of iron storage disease and monitoring of liver iron content during treatment. Nest temperature fluctuations in a cavity nester, the southern ground- hornbill.

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Southern ground- hornbills Bucorvus leadbeateri inhabit savanna and bushveld regions of South Africa. They nest in the austral summer, which coincides with the wet season and hottest daytime temperatures in the region. They are secondary cavity nesters and typically nest in large cavities in trees, cliffs and earth banks, but readily use artificial nest boxes. Southern ground- hornbills are listed as Endangered in South Africa, with reintroductions into suitable areas highlighted as a viable conservation intervention for the species.

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Nest microclimate, and the possible implications this may have for the breeding biology of southern ground- hornbills , have never been investigated. We used temperature dataloggers to record nest cavity temperature and ambient temperature for one artificial and 11 natural southern ground- hornbill tree cavity nests combined, spanning two breeding seasons. Mean hourly nest temperature, as well as mean minimum and mean maximum nest temperature, differed significantly between southern ground- hornbill nests in both breeding seasons.

Mean nest temperature also differed significantly from mean ambient temperature for both seasons. Natural nest cavities provided a buffer against the ambient temperature fluctuations. The artificial nest provided little insulation against temperature extremes, being warmer and cooler than the maximum and minimum local ambient temperatures, respectively.