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It may occur in the mind of an individual who is becoming bilingual whether simultaneous or not , but it also occurs at the level of a bi- or multilingual speech community. Something like this reasoning already appears in research on pidgins and creoles, but what we discuss here is broader than that, and could apply to any situation where there is language contact. From the perspective of a multi-dimensional architecture, the difference between the two examples above reduces to the number of levels where the two source grammars do not overlap.

Although they share the trait that they are violable in nature, the constraints we refer to above can combine with one another, resulting in additive gang-up effects as argued for in Harmonic Grammar Pater, One possible candidate would be inhibitory control; if this were a dominant factor, it would indicate that these bilingual grammars have representations that are retrievable to varying degrees, but the lack of inhibitory control leads to doubled structures.

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Potential evidence in favor of this hypothesis come from work by Lipski , on code-mixing in dysfluent or low-proficiency bilinguals. We leave this for future research and thank Nuria Sugarra p. Furthermore, in their proposal they do not addressed representations that contained doubled elements. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol.

Published online Jan 4. Michael T. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Putnam ude. This article was submitted to Language Sciences, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jun 30; Accepted Dec 5. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

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Abstract On the surface, bi- and multilingualism would seem to be an ideal context for exploring questions of typological proximity. Keywords: typological proximity, bilingualism, computational modeling, parallel architectures, vector space models. A holistic view - integrated grammars Research in cognitive neuroscience over the past three decades has provided a cascade of evidence that both languages are, to various degrees, simultaneously active in the mind of bilinguals e. Dynamic integration If we are to move beyond the monolingual biases discussed by Cook , and Ortega in an attempt to develop a cognitive architecture, we need to approach such an endeavor with our own set of axioms: Axiom 1: Mental representations and their sub-components are lossy and gradient by nature.

They make the distinction between mixes and blends see also Chan, , , illustrated below in 1 and 2 : 1 Mix : Welsh-English Determiner Phrase Parafita Couto and Gullberg, , p. Q3 : Why is LI-internal structure opaque to computation? Model: core components We put forward a dynamic model of linguistic representations that shares representations between languages that change over time in response to experience. Chunking In light of limited memory resources, humans apply an effective technique to recognize commonly used combinations or sequences of signals, storing them as a single, declarative memory item.

Routinization Chunking has its equivalent in learning procedures and sequences.

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Distributed representations and declarative memory In a distributed model meaning is represented as a composition of weighted references to other meanings, to episodic experiences, or in arbitrary feature space. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Compression algorithms from computer science Compression has its equivalent in computer science. Testing our model Admittedly, the programmatic model put forward here does not yet constitute a fully implemented model. Example 7 below from Austin, illustrates this non-target structure, where a non-target preverbal complementizer appears: 7 zergatik badoa eskuelara why-Comp go-Abs.

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Conclusion Although sufficient evidence exists supporting the importance of typological similarity and distance in the acquisition, spontaneous speech, and attrition of bilingual grammars across the lifespan, deriving a working definition of this concept with predictive power has been a challenge in both generative and cognitive models of language. Author contributions MP was the lead author for this manuscript, developing the outline and core ideas for this manuscript. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Acknowledgments We would like to thank Matthew A. Footnotes 1 As a point of clarification, our definition of hybrid representations is a cover term for linguistic outputs that contain elements from multiple source grammars e. References Aboh E. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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